Single-crystal group-V δ-TaNx transition-metal (TM) nitride layers, with x ranging from 0.94 to 1.37, are grown on MgO(001) and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. In perfect NaCl-structure crystals, the first-order Raman modes are not allowed by the Oh crystal symmetry. Since first-order acoustic and optical bands are observed for all δ-TaNx samples, this indicates the presence of point defects, even for stoichiometric TaN. The large mass difference between Ta and N leads to a correspondingly large separation between the first-order acoustic and optical bands centered at 150 and 550 cm−1, respectively. A Raman peak at 440 cm−1, overlapping the first-order optical band, is identified as the difference between the first-order optical and acoustic modes. Contrary to the case for most TM nitrides, there is no peak visible in the second-order high-frequency range (700–1500 cm−1). In addition, the first-order transverse (120 cm−1) and longitudinal acoustic peaks (175 cm−1) do not exhibit the frequency shift with N/Ta ratio x (i.e., with the valence electron density) that has been reported for group-IV TM nitrides. This is consistent with the resistivity of TaNx remaining essentially constant, as well as with the very weak dependence of the lattice parameter as a function of the N/Ta ratio, and suggests that the wide single-phase region in this system is due to the presence of isoelectronic antisite substitutions rather than, as has been proposed previously, cation and anion vacancies.